(Inflammatory (optic neuritis
Demyelinative  -
Idiopathic
Multiple sclerosis
Neuromyelitis optica (Devic's disease
Immune-mediated  -
(Postviral optic neuritis (measls, mumps, chickenpox, influenza, infections mononucleosis
Postimmunization optic neuritis
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
(Acute idiopathic polyneuropathy (Guillain-Barre syndrome
systemic lupus erythematosus
Direct infections  -
Herpes zoster, syphilis, tuberculosis, cryptococcosis, cytomegalovirus
Granulomatous optic neuropathy  -
Sarcoidosis
Idiopathic
Contiguous inflammatory disease  -
Intraocular inflammation
Orbital disease
Sinus disease, including mucormycosis
Intracranial disease: meningitis, encephalitis
(Vascular (ischemic optic neuropathy
Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy  -
(Giant cell arteritis (arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy  -
Systemic Vasculitis: systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome, polyarteritis nodosa, Churg-Strauss vasculitis, sjogren's syndrome, Takayasu's disease  -


Migraine  -
Inherited coagulation defects: protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency, antithrombin III deficiency, activated (protein C resistance (factor V Leiden mutation  -


Diabetic papillopathy  -
Radiation optic neuropathy  -
(Sudden massive blood loss (eg, bledding peptic ulcer  -
(Raised intracranial pressure (papilledema
Intracranial mass: cerebral tumor, abscess, subdural hem-atoma  -
Arterivoenous malformation  -
Subarachnoid hemorrhage  -
Meningitis or encephalitis  -
Acquired hydrocephalus  -
Pseudotumor cerebri  -
Cerebral venous sinus occlusion
Secondary pseudotumor cereberi: oral contraceptives, tetracyclines, steroid therapy, steroid withdrawal, hypervitaminosis A, uremia, hypoparathyroidism, respiratory failure
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Spinal tumor  -
(Acute idiopathic polyneuropathy (Guillain-Barre syndrome  -
Mucopolysaccharidosis  -
Craniosynostosis  -
Optic nerve compression
Intracranial diseas: meningioma, pituitary adenoma, craniophyaryngioma, supraclinoid intermal carotid aneurysm, meningeal carcinomatosis, basal meningitis  -


Orbital disease: dysthyroid eye disease, idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease, orbital neoplasm, orbital abscess  -

Optic nerve sheath meningioma  -
Nutritional and toxic
Vitamin deficiencies: vitamin B12 deficiencyy, vitamin B1 (thiamin) deficiency, folate deficiency  -

Tobacco-alcohol amblyopia  -
Heavy metals: lead, thallium, arsenic  -
Drugs: ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampin, disulfiram, quinine, choloramphenicol, amiodarone, digitalis, carmustine, fluorouracil, vincristine, halogenated hydroxyquinolines (eg, iodochlorhydroxyquin, diiodohydroxyquin), hexachlorophene, penicillamine, barbiturates  -



Chemicals: methanol, ethylene glycol  -
Trauma
Direct optic nerve injury  -
Indirect optic nerve injury  -
Optic nerve avulsion  -
Hereditary optic atrophy
(Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (mitochondrial inheritance  -
Autosomal hereditary optic atrophy  -
Autosomal dominanat (juvenile) optic atrophy
Autosomal recessive (infantile) optic atrophy
(Wolfram's syndrome (DIDMOAD: diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness
Inherited neurodegenerative disease  -
(Hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia (Friedreich's ataxia
(Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
Lysosomal storage disorders
Neoplastic infiltration
Glioma, leukaemia, lymphoma, meningeal carcinomatosia, astrocytic hamartoma, melanocytoma, hemangioma  -

Optic nerve anomalles
Hypoplasia  -
Dysplasia, including "morning glory syndrome", coloboma, and ptic nerve pit  -

Tilted disks, including situs inversus, and scleral crescents  -
Megalopapilla  -
Myelinated nerve fibers  -
persistent hyaloid system  -
Prepapillary vascular loops  -
Optic nerve head drusen  -
Hyperopic pseudopapilledema  -
Glaucomatous optic neuropathy
Optic atrophy secondary to retinal disease


تورم ديسک اپتيک بيشتر در بيمارى‌هائى رخ مى‌دهد که بخش قدامى عصب اپتيک را درگير مى‌کنند ولى همچنين ممکن است در افزايش فشار داخل جمجمه و کمپرشن اينترا اربيتال عصب اپتيک نيز به‌وقوع بپيوندد. انسداد وريد مرکزى شبکيه، هيپوترونى چشم و التهاب داخل چشمى با ايجاد ادم ديسک اپتيک باعث تشخيص اشتباه بيمارى عصب اپتيک مى‌شوند.


آتروفى اپتيک پاسخ غيراختصاصى به آسيب عصب اپتيک با هر علتى مى‌باشد. به‌خاطر اينکه عصب اپتيک شامل آکسون‌هاى سلول‌هاى گانگليونى شبکيه است بيمارى‌هاى اوليه شبکيه نظير رتينيت پيگمونتوزا يا انسداد شريان مرکزى شبکيه باعث آتروفى اپتيک مى‌شود. Cupping ديسک اپتيک عموماً نشانه نوروپاتى اپتيک گلوکوماتوس مى‌باشد ولى ممکن است با هر آتروفى اپتيکى نيز رخ دهد. اصطلاح نورورتينيت براى مجموعه تورم ديسک اپتيک و اکسوداهاى شبکيه نام‌گذارى صحيحى نيست چرا که التهاب شبکيه وجود ندارد. عموماً بين شدت رنگ‌پريدگى ديسک بينائى با کاهش حدت ديد، ميدان ديد، ديد رنگى و واکنش‌هاى مردمک ارتباط وجود دارد ولى ارتباط براساس علت زمينه تغيير مى‌کند. استثناء اصلى اين قانون نوروپاتى اپتيک کمپرسيواست که در آن رنگ پريدگى ديسک عموماً تظاهر ديررس مى‌باشد.